Kamran Ahmed, Abdullatif Aydin, Prokar Dasgupta, Muhammad Shamim Khan and John E. McCabe

J Surg Educ. 2015 Jul-Aug;72(4):556-65. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2015.01.005. Epub 2015 Feb 13.

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To evaluate the urology human cadaver training program developed by the British Association of Urological Surgeons.


This prospective, observational comparative study recruited urology residents, with different levels of experience, in 2 sessions of a 3-day modular cadaveric operative urology training. Participants performed various procedures on fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens, as per module, supervised by certified urological surgeons. At the conclusion of each module, all residents and faculty were invited to complete an evaluation survey.


The training days were hosted by the British Association of Urological Surgeons at the University of Manchester Surgical Skills and Simulation Centre.


A total of 81 urology residents were recruited, with a maximum of 14 participants attending each module, over 2 sessions. We allocated 2 participants to each cadaver with access to all necessary equipment and guidance.


A total of 102 evaluation surveys were received from the trainees and faculty; a response rate of 94%. All procedures scored a mean of 3 on 5 for face validity, which is higher than the acceptability range. Regarding content validity, participants and faculty rated all aspects ≥3 on 5. Respondents held a positive view of the cadaver sessions and believed them to be useful for learning anatomy and steps of an operation (mean = 4.54) and as a confidence booster for performing a procedure (mean = 4.33). Furthermore, it was thought that the training program significantly improved skills (mean = 4.11), gave transferrable skills for the operating room (mean = 4.21), and was feasible to be incorporated into training programs (mean = 4.29). Human cadaveric simulation was rated as the best mode of simulation-based training for all the procedures in the curriculum.


This study on cadaveric simulation training demonstrated face and content validities. It also showed feasibility, acceptability, a high value for educational influence and cost-effectiveness for cadaveric simulation. A simulation-based training pathway has been proposed for effective procedural training in urology.