Oliver Brunckhorst, Shahab Shahid, Abdullatif Aydin, Craig McIlhenny, Shahid KhanSyed Johar Raza, Arun Sahai, James Brewin, Fernando Bello, Roger KneeboneMuhammad Shamim Khan, Prokar Dasgupta and Kamran Ahmed

Surg Endosc. 2015 Sep;29(9):2728-35. doi: 10.1007/s00464-014-3996-6. Epub 2014 Dec 5.

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Current training modalities within ureteroscopy have been extensively validated and must now be integrated within a comprehensive curriculum. Additionally, non-technical skills often cause surgical error and little research has been conducted to combine this with technical skills teaching. This study therefore aimed to develop and validate a curriculum for semi-rigid ureteroscopy, integrating both technical and non-technical skills teaching within the programme.


Delphi methodology was utilised for curriculum development and content validation, with a randomised trial then conducted (n = 32) for curriculum evaluation. The developed curriculum consisted of four modules; initially developing basic technical skills and subsequently integrating non-technical skills teaching. Sixteen participants underwent the simulation-based curriculum and were subsequently assessed, together with the control cohort (n = 16) within a full immersion environment. Both technical (Time to completion, OSATS and a task specific checklist) and non-technical (NOTSS) outcome measures were recorded with parametric and non-parametric analyses used depending on the distribution of our data as evaluated by a Shapiro-Wilk test.


Improvements within the intervention cohort demonstrated educational value across all technical and non-technical parameters recorded, including time to completion (p < 0.01), OSATS scores (p < 0.001), task specific checklist scores (p = 0.011) and NOTSS scores (p < 0.001). Content validity, feasibility and acceptability were all demonstrated through curriculum development and post-study questionnaire results.


The current developed curriculum demonstrates that integrating both technical and non-technical skills teaching is both educationally valuable and feasible. Additionally, the curriculum offers a validated simulation-based training modality within ureteroscopy and a framework for the development of other simulation-based programmes.